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Machines Italia Dyeing And Finishing

Italian Textile TechnologyBy Gary Mock, Ph.D., Technical Editor, andJames M. Borneman,Editor In Chief

Machines Italia: Dyeing And FinishingInnovations from Brazzoli S.p.A. focus on the Innodye®. At the heart of this technology is the development of a perforated basket that moves side to side as the fabric advances into the dyeing machine through the Turbovario, a variable conical cross-section venturi. The J-shaped baskets motion plaits the rope of fabric as it moves from the top of the machine into the immersion area. The motion is synchronized automatically with the fabric driving wheel, which maximizes the space in the machine, and according to the company, increases repeatability and reduces foam formation. Maximizing the load size also maximizes the interaction between the dye or treatment bath and the fabric, reducing pilling and cycle time. Dyeing of 100-percent cotton using a reactive dark dye can be reduced from five hours to roughly three hours, while cotton/polyester dyeing can be reduced from six hours to four and one-half hours.The machine is available in a modular construction and can be run coupled or uncoupled. Because of its load efficiency and flexibility, INNODYE also is used in bleaching.Robotized Dyeing SystemsObem S.p.A.s technology focuses on dyeing systems created in modular form that facilitate flexibility and versatility by modifying lot size all with a positive environmental impact. Flexibility is evident in the design of a four-unit, 250-kilogram (kg)-per-unit machine that can run in a 1,000-kg mode or a 250-kg mode, allowing the textile manufacturer to adapt to business conditions.The companys latest technology is most apparent in the TMB/SV-tr, a fully robotized skein-dyeing system. Using a specially designed spray hank arm, the hanks are processed without tension. The system is particularly suited for fine or soft yarn. When asked about the success of placing its automated systems in China, Obem pointed to the recent opening of an installation of a fully robotized, pressurized skein-dyeing system and noted the automation was for quality purposes. For fabric dyeing, Obems sister company, Maibo, features the Medusa, an overflow machine with two baskets. It differs from a typical system, which uses the liquor to push the fabric, by using multiple injection points, floating the fabric in the baskets and using a reel to move the fabric. The Medusa is finding a niche in knits and elastic fabrics manufacturing, where reduced stress is important.
The Spyra tumbler from Biancalani handles fabric in rope form.Adding ValueTechnology that adds value to fabrics is at the heart of Biancalani S.p.A.s technology. Popular with fabric finishers around the world, the Spyra and Airo® machines have added options affecting both fabric face and hand. The Spyra is a continuous tumbler that handles the fabric in rope form. Fabrics can be padded prior to entering the machine. The fabric is winched and carried into each tumbler section with a large quantity of injected high-pressure air. In the first six of 10 positions, steam also can be injected for additional finishing effects. A cool air stream feeds the fabric into the final two tumblers to complete the process. The perforated tumblers are large enough to avoid knots, and feed collection pans with load cells signal the pace for the upcoming section. Depending on the process, fabrics are bulked and dry-softened, adding value by improving hand in a range of products from knits to upholstery.The Airo system is a discontinuous machine for washing, softening and drying knits and woven goods in rope form. This technology links the high-pressure air-carrying system for fabrics with an impact against a contrast grid. Machine versatility accommodates extremely delicate to very aggressive cycles. The fabric impacts the grid in a predominately open manner because of the air pressure in the ejectors, ensuring processing without stripes, abrasions or creasing. In wet processing, this increases penetration of treatment bath chemicals as they physically pass through the fabric. The Airos ability to modify surface and hand in a range of products, from apparel to home furnishings, has made it a versatile tool in the hands of finishers.Building SynergiesTechnology at Leopoldi Pozzi S.p.A. and Pozzi Elettronica S.p.A. has focused on nine product lines and in building synergies with others to market its products globally. Four completely new machines related to hydroextraction and automatic powder weighing will be shown at ITMA 2003.The AQuafix brQ vacuum steaming machine offers a modular cube form that allows loading of up to five pallets at a time. When fully loaded, 3,500 kg of yarn are processed in each run, which takes about 45 minutes. The result is a minimal environmental footprint, efficient use of head space and high productivity. Pozzis SynchroWash system for wash water control on air-pad dyeing machines, introduced in 1999, will be further improved this year. Rather than using the popular fill-drain-fill-drain sequence adopted by many to save wash water, SynchroWash continuously drains the dirtiest water and allows filling only when the spent water is sufficiently concentrated. Pozzi claims a 60-percent reduction in wash water usage and energy consumption, as well as a 30-percent reduction in cycle time for reactive dye cycles. Pozzi Elettronica will be present at ITMA 2003 showing the latest version of its Saltex, a system for dosing up to five different salts to a large number of machines. MCS GroupThe MCS Group comprises MCS Officina Meccanica S.p.A., a dyeing and finishing machinery manufacturer; Termoelettronica S.p.A., manufacturer of automatic dosing and dispensing systems, microprocessor controls and dyehouse management systems; Europea, a commission dyehouse using MCS machines; and Europizzi, a commission dyeing and printing plant and chemical products manufacturer. Turnover in 2002 was in excess of 130 million euros. The Multiflow® single-rope jet-dyeing machine is an MCS exclusive. This concept allows movement of a single rope from chamber to chamber. In a three-chamber machine, goods loaded into chamber one move to the bottom of chamber three, then into chamber two, and back to chamber one. There is no longer a favorite chamber (closest to the pump) or a disadvantaged chamber (farthest from the pump). Fabric passes through all the chambers, so there is no need to extend dyeing times to wait for all chambers to reach the proper shade. Dye and salt are added as quickly as possible over four to eight turnovers. The new hydrovario jet nozzle, which uses a stepping motor, is the first in the world that allows change in jet pressure without changing diameter. Dye cycles for reactive dyeing on 100-percent cotton have been shortened to less than four hours. Since 1998, more than 760 Multiflow machines have been sold worldwide.
The Multiflow jet-dyeing machine from MCS Officina Meccanica features three chambers to provide quick and level dyeing.In the United States, more than 15 installations of MCSs Superdome carpet beck have been installed in six dyehouses. Maximum capacity is 3,500 pounds per load. Another innovation is the Termoelettronica TERMOdye vacuum dosing system. Scale development has allowed vendors to claim accuracy of ±0.01 gram. However, with small dosing and use of powder dyes, dye is often lost to the air during transfer. The enclosed vacuum system ensures complete transfer of all dosed dyes.Indigo DyeingWhile US manufacturers tended to install large indigo ball warp-dyeing ranges to supply the commodity market, Master S.a.s. di Ronchi F.& C. began several years ago to work closely with fashion-oriented European denim manufacturers. Master developed its Indigoflow technology by producing a warp-dyeing machine equipped with patented devices, such as special pad troughs with optimized shape and efficient double-flow bath circulation, and Twinflow vats to improve dyeings when using dyestuffs other than indigo. Pure indigo baths can be circulated from a make-up tank, and the machine is equipped with a second separated circulation system to allow colored denim using sulfur, vat or reactive dyes without danger of pollution among different dyestuffs. Indigoflow also can be equipped with steamers for better dyeing performance in color denim bottoming and topping; intermediate dryers for producing reliable reactive and indanthren dyeings, and several other options suitable to follow market demands.Package Dyeing SpecialistThe introduction by Loris Bellini S.p.A. of the RBNO horizontal package-dyeing system at ITMA 1983 swept the yarn package-dyeing world. Since then, Bellini has become a specialist in the development and optimization of package dyeing. Innovations include an interchangeable dye carrier that allows dyeing at almost constant and optimal liquor ratios, with packages that vary from 150 to 300 mm in diameter. Over the past 10 years, the outside diameters of average cotton packages have increased from 165 to 215 mm, and are up to 245 mm for fiber-reactive dyeing. To handle the additional pumping capability required to uniformly penetrate these larger distances, Bellini developed a heliocentrifugal pump with a combined impeller axial and centrifugal pump on the same shaft to cover the differential pressure range from 0.3 bar to 1.7 bar. The same pump system can now handle high-permeability packages such as wool and acrylic, as well as dense cotton, viscose and Tencel® packages. The RBNO control system can be equipped with a magnetic on-line flowmeter to ensure constant specific flow rates or bath turnovers per minute. June 2003